Danses i música de Bali

6 Setembre 2011

Centenars d’anys enrere l’hinduisme va entrar a Bali de bracet amb l’ornament litúrgic de les danses. A través de l’expressió dels cossos els ballarins manifesten el sentit més pregon de la fe. Els moviments són l’exteriorització de l’ànima dels dansaires en comunió amb l’esperit -o l’alè- dels déus. Durant centúries la tradició ha prevalgut en el ritual dels balls. Amb l’arribada dels primers artistes europeus a Bali, en el transcurs del primer terç del segle XX, molt del que havia estat inamovible va començar a trontollar. Dins el camp artístic conceptes arrelats com el patrimoni comú de talles, pintures o danses va cedir a la noció de propietat individual introduïda pels europeus. Ens trobem el cas de Walter Spies (1895-1942), un musicòleg i pintor russo-alemany que va arribar i es va instal·lar a Bali el 1927. Spies va adaptar la dansa Kecak per al film Insel der Dämonen (L’illa dels dimonis), de Friedrich Dalsheim, el 1932. La coreografia recreada per Spies segueix mostrant-se avui en la majoria de versions del Kecak que es ballen per turistes. Probablement a partir del toc personal d’Spies al Kecak, els balinesos, sempre oberts a assimilacions i canvis formals, però hermètics pel que fa a l’essència, no solament han recreat danses seculars sinó que també n’han concebut de noves.
Els artistes més influents no es conformen en oferir durant les cerimònies religioses les danses i música de la manera que s’han vist i escoltat sempre. L’esperit creatiu els impulsa no solament a la renovació i al rescat d’obres antigues, sinó a concebre noves peces. I Nyoman Cerita és un dels artistes amb més renom. A més d’haver estat un ballarí excel·lent (ara es dedica a ensenyar els joves valors) avui és el coreògraf més valorat de Bali. És el creador, per exemple, de Satya Brasta, una dansa inspirada en un fragment èpic del Mahabarata interpretada per sis -de vegades, vuit- adolescents. I Nyoman Cerita també és coreògraf del sanggar Çudamani, a Pengosekan. Un sanggar és el centre comunitari on s’estudien i practiquen les arts tradicionals. Del sanggar Çudamani emanen algunes de les millors creacions musicals i coreogràfiques que avui es fan a Bali. El tàndem de Cerita amb els germans Dewa Putu Berata i Dewa Ketut Alit, fundadors de l’esmentada comunitat artística, juntament amb l’esposa del primer, Emiko Saraswati Susilo, una nord-americana d’ascendència javanesa, fan que Çudamani sigui, en aquests moments, el gresol de l’art musical i coreogràfic més reputat de Bali. Els components del sanggar són joves d’ambdós sexes, amb edats que van entre els 12 i 30 anys. A més de treballar les disciplines de la dansa i la música, experimenten una nova modalitat de teatre d’ombres que anomen Wayang Lestrik. En lloc de titelles de pell de búfal manipulats per humans, són els humans els qui representen els titelles. El Wayang Lestrik és un híbrid que es mou entre la dansa, el cant i el teatre. Les evolucions d’actors i actrius van acompanyades pels instruments de l’orquestra tradicional, o gamelan. El teatre d’ombres humà és una altra excel·lència nascuda del prestigiós sanggar.
Un altre dels grans, al qual considero el meu germà balinès, és I Made Karyana. Conec en Made des que era una criatura. He viscut la seva evolució de ben a prop. Durant les meves freqüents estades a Bali gairebé no hi ha dia, dels que resideixo a Ubud, que no passi per ca seva. En Made va començar ballant la dansa Baris i ara és un expert consumat. Pocs ballarins són tan apreciats a Bali com I Made Karyana. En Made balla sovint al palau d’Ubud i sempre que les cerimònies ho requereixen als temples del seu vilatge. De petit, el seu pare va ensenyar-lo a cisellar màscares de fusta. Les màscares que esculpeix són les que després utilitza per ballar les danses amb màscara o topeng. En Made també és professor de dansa tradicional, tant pels balinesos com pels estrangers que volen aprendre les arts de Bali de la mà d’un dels millors mestres.

Cartell de promoció de la pel·lícula de Friedrich Dalsheim, amb coreografia de Walter Spies, “Insel der Dämonen”, rodada el 1932 a Bali i estrenada el 1933.

Vídeos relacionats amb l’article

Sanggar Çudamani: Odalan Bali (Rehearsal) Sanggar Çudamani, Ceremonial Night, Dance in Blue, Bamboo to Bronze, Gamelan Çudamani

I Nyoman Cerita: Joy in the Temple, Tiger Dance

I Made Karyana: Learning from the Master, Raja Dalem, Young Man Tears (Tari Topeng Monyer), The Land of My Spirit. Carving Mask, Day of Nyenuk

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Bamboo to Bronze

6 Desembre 2010

The rehearsal was held few weeks before the group from Sanggar Çudamani flew to USA to present it’s new production Bamboo to Bronze. It was recorded at night time at Pura Tamen Limut, a temple located in Pengosekan, Ubud, the same village where Çudamani Group comes from. In the video we see a bit from the beginning of the new production Bamboo to Bronze. The performance features 26 artists including choreography and composition by I Dewa Putu Berata. The artistic director was born into a family of musicians and painters and studied under his father I Dewa Nyoman Sura. He is the founding member of Sanggar Çudamani. Sanggar Çudamani comprised of 60 members. I Dewa Putu Berata has directed numerous gamelan ensembles and works on various international projects throughout the world. I Nyoman Cerita, choreographer, learned dance at age 6 from his grandfather I Made Kenyir. He is recipient of numerous awards as well as from Titane Spectacles/Le Jardin Des Poiries in Paris. Emiko Saraswati Susilo was one of Çudamani’s founding members. She began her formal studies in Javanese and Balinese dance under the direction of KRT Sasmintadipura and Ni Made Wiratini. She has studied Javanese singing from Tri Haryanto and Midiyanto. I Dewa Ketut Alit studied drumming with his father and began performing at age 11.
Bamboo to Bronze is a new creation of Çudamani’s group. The music and dance ensemble from Bali, harnesses movement, music and spectacle to transport audiences into the vibrant world of the treasured gamelan art form. Bamboo to Bronze highlights Balinese contemporary reality by celebrating the intimate and poetic sounds of a small village as well as the virtuosic, dynamic and technically dazzling sound of the brilliant seven-toned gamelan Semarandana. The simple beauty of bamboo and the glorious sheen of bronze continue to coexist in the increasingly complex and sophisticated culture of Bali.


Dance in Blue

24 Novembre 2010

The rehearsal was held few weeks before the group from Sanggar Çudamani flew to USA to present it’s new production Bamboo to Bronze. It was recorded at Pura Tamen Limut, a temple located in Pengosekan, Ubud, the same village where Çudamani Group comes from. In the video we see one of the dances included in the new production Bamboo to Bronze. The real name of the dance is Pengleban, but I call it Dance in Blue because the dress color of the four female dancers. Blue color is an unusual color in Balinese traditional dances. The performance features a stellar array of 26 artists including choreography and composition by I Dewa Putu Berata. The artistic director was born into a family of musicians and painters and studied under his father I Dewa Nyoman Sura. He is the founding member of Sanggar Çudamani. Sanggar Çudamani comprised of 60 members. I Dewa Putu Berata has directed numerous gamelan ensembles and works on various international projects throughout the world. I Nyoman Cerita, choreographer, learned dance at age 6 from his grandfather I Made Kenyir. He is recipient of numerous awards as well as from Titane Spectacles/Le Jardin Des Poiries in Paris. Emiko Saraswati Susilo was one of Çudamani’s founding members. She began her formal studies in Javanese and Balinese dance under the direction of KRT Sasmintadipura and Ni Made Wiratini. She has studied Javanese singing from Tri Haryanto and Midiyanto. I Dewa Ketut Alit studied drumming with his father and began performing at age 11.
Bamboo to Bronze is a new creation of Çudamani’s group. The music and dance ensemble from Bali, harnesses movement, music and spectacle to transport audiences into the vibrant world of the treasured gamelan art form. Bamboo to Bronze highlights Balinese contemporary reality by celebrating the intimate and poetic sounds of a small village as well as the virtuosic, dynamic and technically dazzling sound of the brilliant seven-toned gamelan Semarandana. The simple beauty of bamboo and the glorious sheen of bronze continue to coexist in the increasingly complex and sophisticated culture of Bali.


Bali. Cerimonial Night

10 febrer 2010

When night falls people from Pengosekan gather at the temple Pura Penataram Dalem to celebrate its anniversary. It’s a sacred and magnificient celebration, called Odalan, wich take place every 210 days. The Pura Dalem is the temple of the dead, where cremation ceremonies are held. But the video shows no funeral on the temple premises, only joy and fun. At the beginning we see the entrance of the Barongs at the campound of the temple. The Barongs are the most sacred criatures on the Balinese mythology. Balinese Barongs come in many forms, but the most common is like a baroque Chinese lion, the Barong Ket, with big eyes and clacking jaws. It is one of the most sacred masks in Bali. Probably every village has at least one. The Barong is accompanied by a Balinese gamelan orchestra. The Barong protects the village from harmful influences. It parades the streets every Galungan festival, dancing in front of houses and shops, warding off evil. The Balinese bow in reverence. It does the same just before Nyepi, the Balinese New Year. Two men are inside: one operates the wooden head and lower movable jaw, and the other holds up the back and arched tail. No special qualifications for the men, but they must belong to the same banjar as the Barong. And the need to be stout as the whole Barong Ket costume weighs about 85 kilos. The front is heavy and the dancer will need to be relieved during long processions.
After the priest blessing the sacred criatures, Barong Macan (Tiger Barong) starts dancing, at 00:56. [From the beginning to the end of Barong Macan Dance the music -playing strings and flutes- is simply wonderful: highly recommended listening with attention]. When Barong dance ends, a man dancing Jauk Manis appears [03:57]. Jauk dance is a classical solo performance expressing the movements of a demon. Jauk is derived from a traditional play in which all the dancers, wearing frightening masks of the raksasa or demon type, recreate episodes from the Kawi versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, like the dance Baris. Jauk is considered a difficult dance. The dancer aim is to express the character revealed in the appearance of the mask: strong, powerful personality. Unlike the Baris dancer, a Jauk performer cannot rely on facial expressions to convey feeling. He is obliged to express his demoniac exuberance through his gestures alone. The round, protruding eyes and tentacle like fingernails are the marks of identification for a demon. The Jauk dancers movements closely resemble those of the Baris, but his manner is more exaggerated and violent. Suddenly he lunges, the music becomes frenetic with loud, clashing sounds, he spins to reach the perimeter of the stage: then stops, precise and controlled. Slowly, he retreats, as if preoccupied by dark, treacherous thoughts. When Jauk dance finishes appear on the video two man playing Lawak Bali [07:10], a sort of comedy very appreciated for all audiences. Both adults and children enjoy watching the men acting like clowns. Finally, we see a bit of Barong Ket dance [08:56]. Barong Ket is the most sacred Balinese creature. With a fragment of this dance the video ends. The musicians playing gongs, strings, drums, flutes and xylophon instruments (Gamelan Orchestra) are members of sanggar Çudamani, from the village of Pengosekan. Çudamani Group is one of the most finest and prestigious artistic ensembles in Bali. Enjoy the images and have fun.


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